CYATHEA ARBOREA PDF

Cyatheaceae family. Cyathea arborea (Linnaeus) Smith, Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. ( Turin) 5(): Bas.: Polypodium arboreum Linnaeus (). Cyathea arborea (Vernacular English: West Indian treefern Vernacular Spanish: helecho gigante or palo camarón) is a plant of the Cyatheaceae family in the. Image of Cyathea arborea. Cyathea arborea Trusted Image of Cyathea arborea; Map of Cyathea arborea Explore what EOL knows about Cyathea arborea.

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Cyathea arborea Vernacular English: West Indian treefern [1] Vernacular Spanish: Tree ferns are an ancient form of plant life [2] that still survive in tropical forests. This perennial fern can reach a height of 27 feet. It has a thornless trunk measuring from 3 to 5 inches. The surface of the trunk is hard with a soft, white core. Its crown has 10 arborew more leaves in the form of a fan.

When they are young, its leaves are rolled up and as they grow they unroll until they reach their horizontal position. As with all ferns, [2] species of the Cyatheaceae family reproduce from spores.

These are produced in small sporangia on the bottom side of their leaves. Tree ferns as a group are mostly found it wet tropical forest, with Cyathea arborea itself being found in locations such as such as Puerto Rican moist forests. While they can grow under a canopy, it is likely that natural disturbances such as landslides and hurricanes create gaps in the forest canopy that allow them to regenerate. The second-tallest mountain within El Agborea is also named El Yunque, El Yunque National Rainforest is located on the slopes of the Sierra de Luquillo mountains, encompassing 28, acres of land, making it the largest block of public land in Puerto Rico.

El Toro, the highest mountain peak in the forest rises 1, metres above sea level, ample rainfall creates a jungle-like setting — lush foliage, crags, cyatyea, and rivers are a prevalent sight. It is home to over species of trees and plants,23 of which are nowhere else.

Because Puerto Rico is south of the Tropic of Cancer, it has a tropical climate, there is no distinct wet or dry season in El Yunque, it rains year round. The temperature and length of daylight remain fairly constant throughout the year, the average temperature year-round is 80 degrees Fahrenheit and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. All of these provide a year-round growing season. Its ecosystem is specifically surveyed by the Management Team of Ecosystems and this process is called orographic lift and accounts for the intense rainfall and constant cloud presence in this mountainous region.

The Dwarf forest ecosystem is located at around metres and composes the smallest sub-region in El Yunque, the forest is characterized by the variation of vegetation that is only found in Puerto Rico. The vegetation shows stunted growth in which the diameter of the trunk is widened, other specific factors that affect the growth of this sub-region are the high level of acidity and poor water cyaghea from the soil.

The other abundant type of plants in the dwarf forest are epiphytes, El Yunque supports a vast array of animal and plant life that varies depending on the altitude range in the rainforest. The great amount of competition in the canopy does not allow lower level plants to develop, the characteristic of having a widened tree trunk is ideal for epiphytes that require a host to live.

Approximately 15 species of coqui, members of the diverse neotropical frog genus Eleutherodactylus, are known cgathea Puerto Rico. Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here.

In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, arborwa value of acting as permanent stimulants.

Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species.

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This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species.

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While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine.

There are a number of stages in scientific thinking.

Early taxonomy cyahhea based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.

The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of chathea systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone.

Taxonomy has been called the argorea oldest profession, and naming and arbore our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate.

Plant — Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Arbirea. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the afborea algae.

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is also common.

There are about — thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture. They are used as ornaments and, until recently atborea in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals.

The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally cyathae not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, however, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts.

When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled.

Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green cyatha are combined and named varies considerably between authors.

Arbodea comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but vyathea classified among the brown, red and green algae. Each of these groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms. Cyatheales — The order Cyatheales, which includes the tree ferns, is a taxonomic division of the fern class, Polypodiopsida.

No clear morphological features characterize all of the Cyatheales, but DNA aeborea data indicate the order is monophyletic, some species in the Cyatheales have tree-like growth forms, but others have rhizomes.

Some species have scales on the stems and leaves, while others have hairs, however, most plants in the Cyatheales are tree ferns and have trunk-like stems aeborea to 10 metres tall. It is unclear how many times the form has evolved. In general, any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level can be called a tree fern, however, the plants formally known as tree cytahea comprise a group of large ferns belonging to the families Dicksoniaceae and Cyatheaceae in the order Cyatheales.

Like all ferns, tree ferns reproduce by means of spores developed in sporangia on the undersides of the fronds, the fronds of tree ferns are usually very large and multiple-pinnated, but at least one type has entire fronds. The fronds of tree ferns also exhibit circinate vernation, meaning the young emerge arbprea coils that uncurl as they grow.

Unlike flowering plants, tree ferns do not form new tissue in their trunk as they grow.

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File:Cyathea arborea.JPG

Cjathea, the trunk is supported by a mass of roots that expands as the tree fern grows. Some genera — for example Dicksonia and Cibotium, and some Cyathea — can be transplanted by severing the top portion from the rest of the trunk, if the transplanted top part is kept moist it will regrow a new root system over the next year.

The success cuathea of transplantation increases if the roots are dug up intact, if the crown of the Tasmanian tree fern Dicksonia antarctica is damaged, it will die because all new growth occurs there. But other clump-forming tree fern species, such as D. The number of tree species is likely to be around a thousand.

While many ferns are able to achieve a widespread distribution because of their spore reproduction and this makes their species much more susceptible to the effects of local deforestation. Why species cythea not more widespread is unknown, especially considering they have sufficient height to have a chance of getting spores into the wind stream. Where feral pigs are a problem, as in some Hawaiian rainforests, they knock over tree ferns to root out the starchy pith. Outside of the Cyatheales a few ferns in other groups could be considered tree ferns, a few species in the genera Blechnum, Leptopteris, Sadleria and Todea could also be considered tree ferns in a liberal interpretation cyathwa the term.

In the molecular cyathwa classification of Smith et al. Ctathea is known by the father of modern taxonomy. He received most of his education at Uppsala University. He lived abroad between andwhere he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands and he arbrea returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala.

In the s, he was sent on journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants. In the arbrea and s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, at the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote, With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, Swedish author August Strindberg wrote, Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist. Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, The Pliny of the North and he is also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology.

In botany, the abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for species names is L.

Cyathea arborea

In older publications, sometimes the abbreviation Linn. One of a line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Caribbean — The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely cyatthea the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than arborsa, islets, reefs and cays.

These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the arbora countries of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies.

From December 15, to October 10, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.

The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political.

The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas.

Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain cyathew islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by cgathea Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, politically, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region.