The construction of mosaic images and the use of such images on several computer . A natural domain for representing and compositing images acquired by a camera . Technical Report CRL 97/4, Digital Equipment Corp. compositing images is presented. ‘stitch’ a sequence of digital images, and then composite . mosaic into disjoint regions leads to a compositing method. to produce seamless and smooth mosaics from random sequences of digital aerial im- ages and Image mosaicking consists of compositing a col- lection of .

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If the order of the polynomial is not high enough to solve with direct matrix inversion, a pseudo inverse solution can be obtained. The matrix A controls scaling, rotation and shear effects: Perspective transformations preserve lines whereas the stereographic transformations preserve circular shapes [ 29 ]. Local distortions may be present in scenes due to a motion parallax, movement of objects etc. Fig 2 also illustrates some of the projective transformations that are alternative to the perspective transformation.

Due to the limitations of processing speed and memory, compositing artists did not usually have the luxury of having the system make intermediate conversions to linear space for the compositing steps. As opposed to homography techniques which project images to a reference frame e.

The remaining two are the common cases where perspective and polynomial transformations are used, respectively. It also spreads the error equally. References [ 1 ] P. Images acquired from hill-tops or balloons were manually pieced together.

Digital compositing – Wikipedia

The parameters of a local mapping transformation vary across the different regions of the image to handle local deformations. A bivariate polynomial transformation is of the form: These family of strips can handle a wide variety of motions including forward motion and optical zoom.


Carefully calibrated and prerecorded camera parameters may be used to eliminate the need for an automatic registration. A transformation that relocates these points to align with their correspondences has an effect on rest of the pixels inversely proportional to their distances to the control points.

In [ 50 ] local variations that need to be corrected are estimated by the image flow between corresponding images that have undergone global transformations.

The uneven exposure problem can be solved by histogram equalization [ 3058 ], by iteratively distributing the edge effect on the border to a large area [ 59 ], or by a smooth blending function [ 60 ]. Some of the most common global transformations are affine, perspective and polynomial transformations. Specifically, the associativity and commutativity determine when repeated calculation can or cannot be avoided.

Using only correspondences of image points they can handle global distortions e. Having a single viewpoint [ 3637 ] in such imaging systems is important for capability to reconstruct perspective views. The complete representation of static scenes resulting from mosaicing video frames in conjunction with an efficient representation for dynamic changes provide a versatile environment for visualizing, efficiently coding, accessing, analyzing information.

Mosaicing images on smooth surfaces e. Without any special considerations, four full-image blends would need to occur.

A plenoptic function describes everything that is visible in radiant forms of energy to an observer for every possible location of the observer. Relative rotational motions between image pairs are used in [ 13 ] based on quaternions [ 34 ] and [ 11 ] based on an angular motion matrix [ 35 ] before mapping images onto a sphere to avoid the effect of singularities in registration.


The main problem in image compositing is the problem of determining how the pixels in an overlapping area should be represented. Dogital and mosaicing of images have been in practice since long before the age of digital computers.

In this case we may compute S: It has been a central issue for a variety of problems in image processing [ mosics ] such as object recognition, monitoring satellite images, matching stereo images for reconstructing depth, matching biomedical images for diagnosis, etc.

If the transformation is a bilinear transformation i.

Digital compositing

Ddigital indicated by the recent history of newly developed applications, image mosaicing has become a major field of research. To form F with an associative operator, we need only do two additional compositing operations to integrate mksaics new layer S, by computing F: An example of this exists in the Adobe program After Effects.

The limited flying heights of the early airplanes and the need for large photo-maps, forced imaging experts to construct mosaic images from overlapping photographs. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. Alternatively, perspective transformations are often represented by the following equations known as homographies: Carefully calibrated and coupled mirrors [ 37 ] can capture two images that can be easily combined to form a plenoptic image.

Compositing is performed by mathematically combining information from the corresponding pixels from the two input images and recording the result in a third image, which is called the composited image.