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Assessing water resource use in livestock production. This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development.

The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year.

Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: Water requirements for livestock production: Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production.

This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat.

In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by- products that would otherwise go to waste.

The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an galric part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system e.

Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop- livestock system. Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater.

The smallholder mixed crop- livestock MCL system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues CR to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity LWP. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP.

Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity WP were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land GL analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL.

These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most.

As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of.


Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems. Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh waterand the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products.

biofertiliizers Increasing water use efficiency of livestock productiontherefore, can contribute to the overall. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products.

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The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra and Hoekstra and Hung The total water exports adn imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.

Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1. The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food productionexcept for a few products such as wheat and 20000-2006. Horticultural products tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil.

Strategies for improving water use efficiency of livestock production in rain-fed systems. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock garlixtherefore, can contribute to the overall water use efficiency of agriculture. Previous studies have reported significant variation 2000-2060 livestock water productivity LWP within and among farming systems.

Underlying causes of this variation in LWP require further investigation. The objective of this paper was to identify the factors that explain the variation in LWP within and among farming systems in Ethiopia. We quantified LWP for various farms in mixed-crop livestock systems and explored the effect of household biofertilizsrs characteristics and farm assets on LWP using ANOVA and multilevel mixed-effect linear regression. We focused on water used to cultivate feeds on privately owned agricultural lands.

There was a difference in LWP among farming systems and wealth categories. The variation in LWP among wealth categories could be explained by the differences in the ownership of livestock and availability of family labor. Regression results showed that the age of the household head, the size of the livestock holding and availability of family labor affected LWP positively.

The results suggest that water use efficiency could be improved by alleviating resource constraints such as access to farm labor and livestock assets, oxen in particular. Nitrates in drinking water: An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated biofertilizer is source of drinking water. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms.

livestock water productivity: Topics by

Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area.

For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia.

The concept of virtual water content VWC may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.


Livestock production and marketing: The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. Impacts of European livestock production: In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect waterair and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon.

Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector.

The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts.

Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens. The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response biofertilizdrs rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability.

Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers.

In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and watercompetition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy.

Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare biofeftilizers. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values.

There is considerable uncertainty as to how an factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Plant polyphenol, including vanillin, is often used as the intermediate materials of the medicines and vanilla flavoring.

In agriculture generally vanillin is produced from vanilla plant and in industry from lignin of disposed wood pulp.

We have recently developed a method for the production of plant polyphenol with the excrement as a natural resource of lignin, of the herbivorous animals, by using the subcritical water. The method for using the subcritical water is superior to that of the supercritical water because in the latter complete decomposition occurs. We have successfully produced the vanillin, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid in products.

Our method is simpler and more efficient not only because it requires the shorter treatment time but also because it releases less amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption.

The environmental assessment of human activities biofertklizers presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view 2000-20006 efficient utilization of limited natural resources.

The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources land, waterand energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources.