Palabras clave: Superdotación, Inteligencia exitosa, Perfil cognitivo; Q-factor . Robert Sternberg, for his part, avoids using the word typology and opts for the. Libros de Segunda Mano (posteriores a ) – Literatura – Ensayo: Inteligencia exitosa – robert j. sternberg. Compra, venta y subastas de Ensayo en. Teoría Triárquica Subteoría Contextual Subteoría Componencial Subteorías de la Inteligencia Diversidad de habilidades -Robert Stenberg-.

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Successful intelligence and giftedness: This article has been produced with the financial support of both: The aim of our research is to look into the diversity within gifted and talented students.

This is important to better understand their complexity and thus offer a more appropriate educational programs. There are rather few empirical works which attempt to identify high abilities profiles giftedness and talent that actually exist beyond the theoretical level. The present work intends to single out the different patterns or profiles resulting from the combination of the successful intelligence abilities analytical, synthetic and practicalas defined by Stenberg.

A total of students from the Region of Murcia participated in this study.

Different Q-factor analyses were carried out for the three groups of students, in such a way that students were grouped according to their similarities. A total of 10 profiles showing how successful intelligence abilities are combined were obtained, something that has made possible to support the theory put forward by Sternberg This is important to better understand their complexity and thus offer more appropriate educational programs. While all the highly able individuals are usually grouped together as a homogeneous group, and researchers try to find their common characteristics e.

The most usual classifications of talent consider mainly the area of expertise. Thus from traditional approaches, it is assumed that the different types of talent e. Other proposals on the classification of talent pay more attention to the cognitive abilities that compose the giftedness profiles.

This way, in Renzulli’s modeltwo main types of gifted students are differentiated: This way, an IQ of the traditional “IQ” in a general intelligence test does not offer much information about the type of talent that such a figure conceals, be it verbal talent or mathematical talent, for instance.

The key aspect is, then, not measuring the “quantity” of talent, but rather identifying the cognitive profiles of such a talent.

The different profiles were qualitative analyzed looking for differences, proving that not all students present the same cognitive profile of strengs and weakness. Castello uses the terminology of sterrnberg talent”, “multiple talent”, “complex talent” and “conglomerate talent” to refer to the number of areas of strength and the links among them.

The theoretical typology put forward by Betts and Neilhart tries to move beyond the mere classification in terms of cognitive abilities and includes in its proposal the individuals’ non-cognitive and emotional characteristics. In their work, taking their practitioner experience and based on the literature review, they established seven types of giftedness profiles which are useful for educational counselling; these types are: However, this proposal has not been studied iteligencia an empirical level.

In the research undertaken by Guskin, Peng and Majd-Jabbariauthors try to find the different types inteligenia gifted students by asking teachers.

To do so, the conceptions of training teachers and 79 graduate teachers were analyzed. The participants ordered a number of abilities according to the similarity between them.

Robert Sternberg

By means of the different cluster analyses, five categories of giftedness were found: A total of secondary education students labelled as gifted or talented by their teachers participated. These students performed different tests which encompassed psychometric intelligence, divergent thinking, and their multiple intelligences and emotional intelligence as perceived by their teachers. Using a methodology of cluster analysis two main groups of students were found: Within the group of the most creative students, two subgroups were found in turn: Within the group of the least creative students, three subgroups were found in turn: Robert Sternberg, for his part, avoids using the word typology and opts for the use of “patterns of giftedness”, referring to the non-static nature of these patterns unique exitossa of abilities and to how an individual does not solely belong to one or another category Sternberg, The consideration of these patterns or profiles depart from his theory of Triarchic intelligence Sternberg, and suggested in the work “Patterns of Giftedness: A Triarchic Analysis”in which he identifies seven sfernberg of strengths and weaknesses in high skilled students.


These profiles, as Sternberg himself affirms, are rather loose in the sense that it is probable that they may not be found clearly and that they stem from the combination of roobert and weak points of the three types of intelligence that he identified: Following a brief description of the seven patterns is extosa They do reasonably well in the academic context. However, these individuals are not particularly creative nor do they usually make creative contributions during adulthood, dternberg it happens in other giftedness profiles.

They are individuals who excel at generating ideas, yet not at analyzing them or putting them into practice. Stands out in abilities linked to practical intelligence, but lack in creative or analytical skills.

They are persuasive and, quite often, amusing individuals, but their thinking is less reflective. These individuals have a great potential in contributing to their scope of work, due to their ability to criticize their own ideas. This is the kind of giftedness more easily observable in the academic or school context. They are people with great academic intelligence and, besides, they know how to turn this cognitive ability into success.

They tend to work in different jobs and can be successful in a conventional manner, but they do not normally make significant contributions to society as a whole. Their forte is creative and practical skills, but not analytical. These individuals have the ability to create ideas and persuade others about the value of these, be they reasonably well expressed or not.

The resulting type is sterberg effective in convincing others to follow ideas not necessarily promising or for which they may not be ready. These individuals are able to apply any or all of the three abilities as needed and, therefore, are in the best position to make valuable contributions to society.

Not untildoes Sternberg have the opportunity to prove empirically the existence of these exotosa or profiles of giftedness Kornilov et al.

In this very study, and using a sample of of 4th, 5th and 6th grade students who were tested with the Aurora Battery as a measurement of successful intelligence abilities.

The Q-factor analysis technique was employed to group students according to their similarities. As the Q-factor technique is ideal for small samples, the analytically gifted, creatively gifted and practically gifted students with I. In total, 10 patterns of the combinations of successful intelligence abilities were found in Sternberg’s study 2 for the analytically gifted, 4 for the creatively gifted and sternbefg for the practically gifted.

In the groupings laid out, ibteligencia patterns were repeated. In this regard, patterns 4, 6 and 8 corresponded to the consummate balance profile, whereas patterns 5 and 7 corresponded to the analytical-practical profile. It should be highlighted that the patterns found were rather vague, since the profiles defined by Sternberg did not match completely those of the participants in the study.

In fact, the practitioner profile lacking in creativity and analytical intelligence were not found in that study Kornilov et al. The aim of the present work is to study the giftedness patterns or profiles suggested by Sternberg Under this approach, inteljgencia order to comprehend giftedness, we should pay attention to both intelligence types and also to the patterns of those intelligences combined. According to the taxonomy put forward by Sternberg, it is expected to find 7 types of patterns the analyst, the creator, the practitioner, the analytical-creator, the analytical-practitioner, the creative-practitioner and the consummate balancer: As it has been exposed, this objective had already been set by Sternberg Kornilov et al.

These students attended different schools of the Region of Murcia both public and partially-funded. The selection of the sample of participants was made by means of an incidental sampling. Table 1 shows the distribution of participants, sorted by gender and academic year.

The 17 tasks – which measure the three types of intelligence in the three types of representation-have been utilized. Table 2 compiles the activities. The Analytical or Academic Intelligence AI tasks evaluate the ability to solve problems, pass judgment on the quality of the ideas or take decisions in the academic context. The scoring criteria for this multiple option items are either right or wrong. The Practical Intelligence PI tasks are meant to assess the ability to apply knowledge to the resolution of everyday problems.


They assess the ability to solve problems, pass judgment on the quality of the ideas or take decisions in the real world. The Creative Intelligence CI tasks are used to evaluate the ability to find original and non-conventional solutions to situations and problems occurring in everyday life. They value the use of the necessary abilities to create, imagine, invent, discover, speculate and formulate hypotheses. Except for the figurative language task, all others are open-ended questions, and they were assessed by two ratters using a scale for the criteria facilitated by Sterberg’s collaborators.

The evaluation tasks carried out were extosa collectively inside the classroom group-classroom. Two sessions with an approximate duration of three hours were used for such purpose, during school time. The application of these instruments has been done by Pedagogy, psychology and Psychopedagogy graduates. The tests correction was carried out following the instructions of Yale University’s work team. Creativity was appraised by two judges, who had been trained so as to reach a reasonable level of agreement in their marks.

During this phase, it was observed that the variable “adequacy ssternberg the answer” overlapped with “creativity of the answer” therefore, the criterion was modified in such a way that a non-adequate answer would score a 0 in creativity.

Besides, it was considered that variables such as handwriting or the order of answers could affect the evaluator’s judgment, and so, every answer was transferred to an EXCEL spreadsheet, which was assessed individually, with no attention paid to whom had given such answer. In the study carried out by Kornilov et al shernberg scores in the three types of intelligence, measured by the Aurora Battery were transformed into IQ scores. Inteligenncia is, the mean of the scoring was and the standard deviation This transformation was conducted for the whole sample, independently of their ages.

This could be questionable, as it was expected that older children would obtain higher marks if compared to younger ones. For that reason, in our study, the transformation in IQ scores has been done for each academic year the participant students belonged to.

As it has been mentioned before, in order to study high-skill profiles by means of the Aurora Battery, a Q-factor analysis technique has been utilized. The way the Q-factor analyses were performed was by transposing data matrices, in such a way that individuals are turned into variables. In order to decide which pattern of response was more characteristic of each individual, taking into account the loading absolute value, factor loading matrices were used.

Inteligencia Exitosa y Superdotación: un estudio empírico

Since factor loading values can be either positive or negative, each factor represents two potential profiles: To decide which main component saturates more an individual, it was decided to opt for the factor which had the highest exirosa, which could be calculated by means of a simple subtraction between the loads of robetr factor. However, as there were negative loads, it was concluded that, in order to suppress the loads mark, the best solution was squaring them.

Therefore, the resulting formula was: Since the factor loading values can be positive or negative, each component represents two potential profiles: Descriptive statistics and correlations between variables.

Firstly, we will show the descriptive statistics of each one of the students Table 3. In the raw scores, it can be observed that there are differences regarding the mean scoring of the students sorted by academic year. There seems to be an increase linked to the academic year, peaking with 6th year of Primary Education students.

Next, the correlations between the scores in analytical, creative and practical intelligence were estimated.