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Major advancements in DNA sequencing methods introduced in bossnski first decade of the new millennium jasun a rapid expansion of sequencing studies, which yielded a tremendous amount bosanskl DNA sequence data, bosansik whole sequenced genomes of various species, including plants.

Subsequently, frequency of usage of each platform or combination of platforms was calculated. Taking into consideration the current economic situation in the Balkans region, Illumina Solexa is the best if not the only platform choice if the sequencing of immortelle plant Helichrysium arenarium is to be performed by the researchers in this region.

The beginning of the new millennium was marked bosanskj yet another achievement in the field of genetics, specifically plant genomics – the sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana. While this breakthrough set foundations to numerous developments in plant genomics and fostered better understanding of the plant genome, the methodology of sequencing remained a major setback to this field of scientific research.

Namely, the sequence was obtained through the conventional Sanger method, which is rather simple, but requires extensive time, labor and finances when sequencing a whole genome. It would remain as such untilwhen Life Sciences marketed a paralleled version of pyrosequencing which revolutionized sequencing technology, albeit still requiring previous amplification of the sample 1.

Year was marked by emergence of Illumina, a company which introduced a sequencing-by-synthesis approach that is even today a staple of whole genome sequencing 2. All sequencing approaches that followed the Sanger method are contemporarily named as next-generation sequencing NGSand are known for allowing extensive throughput, while greatly reducing the necessary time, labor and cost of any sequencing endeavor 3. NGS indeed triggered a revolution in life sciences, labeled by numerous publications of genomes of different organisms, despite the fact that NGS had several drawbacks such as large genome size, high CG content, emergence of homopolymers etc.

Different bosznski for overcoming these obstacles have been eventually developed, various sequencing methods bosansi or further refined, creating a scientific trend that continues as we speak. These high-throughput sequencing methods fostered numerous valuable discoveries in fields of molecular and evolutionary biology, medicine, forensics, agriculture etc.

When it comes to application of NGS to plant species, the broadest and most prominent is whole genome sequencing WGS in quest for revealing the full sequence of plant genomes, their genetic make-up as well as genetic background of desirable traits in agricultural production. WGS is especially useful for producing draft genomes of plants that are sequenced for the first time 3. Bosannski researchers are predominantly interested in staple cereal, vegetable and fruit species, for obvious economic gain such research may potentially bring.

However, many species of interest have incredibly large and complex genomes which make de novo sequencing of the whole genome labor-intensive and occasionally completely impracticable. Due to this, strategies such as sequencing of only one or several chromosomes of interest, transcriptome sequencing, or exome sequencing are some of the alternatives researchers embrace in quest of specific plant genome data 4.

Nevertheless, currently there is several dozens of published draft plant genomes, including a number of plants of great agricultural and industrial significance Table jason.

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Apart from nosanski use of various cultivars for production of food and beverages, animal feed, fabric, ropes etc. One such plant is immortelle Helichrysium arenariuma perennial plant widely spread on the Adriatic coast of Croatia, Bosnian and Herzegovina and Montenegro 56bosanaki. Due to high market value of essential oil of immortelle, and low investments required for its production, agricultural production of this plant has expanded rapidly in bosahski aforementioned regions, especially in in-land Herzegovina, where producers were able to achieve average annual revenues of 19, Elucidating the genome of this plant in quest of better understanding of its desirable traits for agricultural production would undoubtedly have a great impact on the economy of the region.


This article has descriptive jqsin and present systematic review of literature focusing on sequencing technologies utilized in sequencing of plant genomes. For the purpose of this study, we examined the published draft genomes of plants. Since publicly available data only cover researches published up to yearany more recent research was not included in the study. Criteria for paper selection were: Applying these criteria, 45 papers 9 – 53 were selected with 47 presented plant genome draft sequencesand frequency of application of each NGS platform determined.

The papers and corresponding plant genomes are listed in Appendix 1. The frequencies were subsequently bosanskk in correlation with technical characteristics and cost of sequencing, in order to deduce the best approach to sequencing immortelle Helichrysium arenarium.

For comparison purposes technical properties Table 2 and sequencing cost bosaanski Table 3 obtained from Liu, et al. Most frequently used platforms jzsin platform combinations were then analyzed in terms of size of genomes deduced through their application.

Papers included in the study were firstly examined in terms of utilized NGS platform or combination of platforms, including combining with traditional Sanger methodas shown in Bosandki 4 and Figure 1 below.

Most frequently used NGS platforms, or platform combinations including combinations with Sanger sequencing in draft plant genome publications until The results demonstrate that the combining of different platforms is a very common practice, as Combining the platforms appears to be due to the practical and infrastructural reasons, and employed on wide jasn of genome sizes, however, it is undoubtedly helpful in mitigating some of the setbacks that each platform on its own has.

Although the focus of this study is on the NGS platforms, it is important to point out that we can still find a significant portion of sequencing projects that involve traditional Sanger sequencing approach. We have found that a total of 21 studies utilize Sanger sequencing and always in combination with NGS platforms. Genome size is another parameter taken into consideration when selecting sequencing techniques for a research.

Table 5 and Figure 2 present the most frequently used NGS platforms or platform combinations in terms of size of the genomes deduced through their usage. Sizes of plant genomes published using different NGS platforms or combinations of platforms. Size and number of genomes obtained using different NGS platforms. Figure 2 clearly demonstrates that the size of the bosansmi, although an important consideration when assembling the sequence 54is not effective to the choice of the sequencing platform by researchers.

Bozanski, no particular trend can be detected when comparing the size of the genome and sequencing platform researchers opt for.

Since genome size of Helichrysium arenarium has not been reported yet in the literature as of the end ofwe will rely on the study of several other species from the Helichrysium genus, published by Azizi et al.

Since species displayed various degrees of polyploidy, genome size range for genus Helichrysium can be, based on the available data, confined to roughly 8, Mb. However, additional run costs including the necessary chemicals, utensils, labor etc.

Examination of technical properties can be helpful for proper selection of a sequencing platform. Since longer reads are preferable for accurate assembling and for interpreting repetitive boosanski, such as those of many plants of interest, the Bosanwki method would be the most suitable. However, it is avoided due to high cost, time and jasiin requirements. Sanger sequencing is often used in combination with NGS platforms, for library sequencing, sequencing of genome portions that are improperly sequenced by NGS, subsequent proofreading of certain genome portions etc.


Additionally, it has been reported on several occasions that in recent years the Illumina sequencing platform has been the most successful platform in terms of market share and widespreadness, to the bosanaki of near monopoly, which only adds to jassin fact that it is the most popular choice of scientists performing the plant genome sequencing 55 Although Azizi et al.

Clearly, karyotype and genome size analysis for H. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Ja-sin – Wikipedia

Journal List Med Arch v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Masin 12; Accepted Aug 4. This bsanski has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Technical properties of the three sequencing platforms.

Table 3 Cost of the three sequencing platforms. Table 4 Frequency of used NGS platforms among draft genomes of plants published until Table 5 Sizes of plant genomes published using different NGS platforms or combinations of platforms. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing System.

Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology.

Sura Jasin u tefsiru i islamskoj kulturi Bosne i Sandžaka – Enis Makić – Google Books

Sequencing of plant genomes – a review. Turkish Journal of Agriculture bosnaski Forestry. Genomics jadin transcriptomics for utilization of plant genetic resources and crop improvement. Moench Russ J Bioorg Chem. Biochemical Characterization of Helichrysum italicum Roth G.

Phytochemical Screening, Chemotaxonomy, and Antioxidant Properties. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Sequence analysis of the genome of an oil-bearing tree, Jatropha curcas L. The genome of the extremophile crucifer Thellungiella parvula. Whole genome sequencing of peach Prunus persica L. The genome of woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca Nature Genet.

The genome of Theobroma cacao. The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. De novo genome sequencing and comparative genomics of date palm Phoenix dactylifera Nat Biotech. Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea Cajanus cajanan orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers. The draft genome and bosansi of Cannabis sativa.

Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato. The genome of flax Linum usitatissimum assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads. The genome of Prunus mume. Genome sequence of foxtail millet Setaria italica provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential.

The banana Musa acuminata genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants. The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii.

The tomato genome sequence provides insights into fleshy fruit evolution. International Boosanski Genome Sequencing Consortium. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat Bosaski aestivum genome.

A draft genome sequence of Nicotiana benthamiana to enhance molecular plant-microbe biology research. Mol Plant Microbe In. The genome of melon Cucumis melo L.

The sunflower Helianthus annuus L. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet Beta vulgaris Nature.

The draft genome of sweet orange Citrus sinensis Nature Genet. The draft genome of watermelon Citrullus lanatus and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. The genome of the pear Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.