In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

Author: Vukasa Zular
Country: Nicaragua
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Music
Published (Last): 9 April 2011
Pages: 176
PDF File Size: 10.23 Mb
ePub File Size: 5.64 Mb
ISBN: 212-7-92221-919-9
Downloads: 33270
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Bataxe

The computers have been hand-fed reams of information by data entry personnel, and they use all this jcrr to come up with a possible diagnosis.

The Matrix: J.C.R. Licklider

That obstacle has been overcome. That assumption may require justification. For more information about how a pacemaker works lickklider www. Information storage and retrieval.

Man-Computer Symbiosis – Wikipedia

In some ways it is a logical extension of our past decision support research, in other ways the prospect of a tightly linked relationship of a human being with a “smart” computing machine is frightening. He could correct the computer’s data, instruct the machine via flow diagrams, and in general interact with it very much as he would with another engineer, except that the “other engineer” would be a precise draftsman, a lightning calculator, a mnemonic wizard, and many other valuable partners all in one.

Will a person in a symbiotic relationship with a computing machine ever consider removing the device or turning it off? As has been said in various ways, men are noisy, narrow-band devices, but their nervous systems have very many parallel and simultaneously active channels.

The computer should read the man’s writing, perhaps on the condition that it be in clear block capitals, and it should immediately post, at the location of each hand-drawn symbol, the corresponding character as interpreted and put into precise type-face. Licklider and Welden Clark August Prerequisites for the achievement of the effective, cooperative association include developments in computer time sharing, in memory components, in memory organization, in programming languages, and in input and output equipment.

Such questions would require the expertise of acousticians and linguists.


The picture readily enlarges itself into a network of such centers, connected to one another by wide-band communication lines and to individual users by leased-wire services. The man should be able to nan a function to the computer, in a rough but rapid fashion, by drawing a graph. It may also over-write, turning all the 0’s into l’s, as though marking over what was written earlier. Messbarger – Short-Biography of J.

Parasitism is a non-mutual, often harmful, symbiotic relationship. Who, for example, would depart from Boston for Los Angeles with a detailed specification of the route?

Given the argument, enter the standard initial register with the first character, and pick up the address of the second. The differences in speed and in language, of course, pose difficulties that must be overcome.

For real-time interaction on a truly symbiotic level, however, a vocabulary of about words, e. Dunn, “The calculation of vowel resonances, and an electrical vocal tract,” J. The other main aim is closely related.

Computing machines can do readily, well, and rapidly many things that are difficult or impossible for man, and men can do readily and well, though not rapidly, many things that are difficult kcr impossible for computers. In general, they will make approximate and fallible, but leading, contributions, and they will define criteria and serve as evaluators, judging the contributions of the equipment and guiding the general line of thought.

Finally, it will do as much diagnosis, pattern-matching, and relevance-recognizing as it profitably can, but it will accept a clearly secondary status in those areas. They also can adjust your heart rate to changes in your activity” It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership.

In other operations, however, the contributions of men and equipment will be to some extent separable. Our relationships with our computers may be more one-sided and less symbiotic than Licklider described. The vision of Licklider was that men would set the goals and that computers would do the routinized work. In Remembrance of Rob Kling: Men will fill in the gaps, either in the problem solution or in the computer program, when the computer has no mode or routine that is applicable in a particular circumstance.


Recent developments like the Apple Watch and research on implantable wireless devices Borton et al. Ellis in A command structure for complex information processing, Proc. AI may have some limitations of its own. Some information must be presented simultaneously to all the men, preferably on a common grid, to coordinate their actions.

In such a system, the speed of the computers would be balanced, and the cost of the gigantic memories and the sophisticated programs would be divided by the number of users.

Other information is of relevance only to one or two operators. At one point, it was necessary to compare six experimental determinations of a function relating speech-intelligibility to speech-to-noise ratio.

He could even define new symbols, as Gilmore and Savell [14] have done at the Lincoln Laboratory, and present them directly to the computer. There are even arrangements to keep users from “clobbering” anything but their own personal programs. Aristotle said that formal knowledge begins with the establishment of definitions and proceeds to an analysis of various levels of cause-and-effect.

For example, if there is no citation for Egan, J. In theorem-proving programs, computers find precedents in experience, and in the SAGE System, they suggest courses of action.

1 Introduction

Licklider hoped for a computer that could handle all the mundane work so that he could spend more time doing what humans do best: Will the symbiotic organism llcklider a person in the sense the term is used today? Throughout the period I examined, in short, my “thinking” time was devoted mainly to activities that were essentially clerical or mechanical: Computer instruction through specification of goals is being approached along two paths.

Each argument register has one cell for each character of the ensemble e. Since untrained operators can read at least as rapidly as kan ones can type, such a device would be a convenient tool in almost any computer installation.