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Fernando Arenas-Lusophone Africa_ Beyond Independence -Univ of Minnesota Press (2011)

I argue that the much touted Lusofonia is as rooted in the efforts of Portuguese empire building during early modernity as it is in the African struggles that led to the empires collapse in late modernity. Malcolmm China has been flexing its economic muscles toward all directions across the globe, it clearly challenges Western economic hegemony in the case of Africa.

Gilberto Freyre, its master theorist, was pivotal in re producing myths of cultural excep-tionalism4 for Brazil and Portugal that some would characterize as doc-trine,5 attempting to explain the dynamics of race relations during colonial as well as postcolonial times, while encroaching upon African nationalist discourses that emerged in the final decades of Portuguese colonialism, and in the particular case of Cape Verde, reverberating within the internal postcolonial debates regarding cultural identity.

There have been a number of Africanist studies focusing on the effects of globalization on the African continent, in addition to the role of Africa within the processes of contemporary globalization Mbembe b; Diouf ; Zeleza ; and Fergusonamong others that offer sus t ained analyses while providing nuanced, multifaceted, and differenti-ated critical accounts.

Mas h na cultura lusa uma percepo do outro e a capacidade de aceitar o outro. Lisbon is home to a lively African nightlife where there are numerous restaurants and dance clubs. Aside from the obvious reiteration of the Lusotropicalist vulgate by both leaders, this exchange also underscores the lasting power of Gil-berto Freyres intellectual legacy even among some of the most respected African, Portuguese, and Brazilian Interconnections 13 political leaders, at the same time as it reinforces an ideological platform for Portugal and Brazil to expand economically and culturally into Africa, as the former Portuguese colonial empire has reconfigured itself into the com-munity of Portuguese-speaking nations, otherwise known as Lusofonia or its formal institutional name CPLP Comunidade de Pases de Lngua Por-tuguesa.

African, Portuguese, and Brazilian Interconnections 19 The antithesis to Paulo Costas audacious art films is the commercially successful picture Zona Jwhere Portuguese director Leonel Vieira focuses on the children of Angolan immigrants, who share with poor white Portuguese youths a turbulent life on the fringes of Portuguese society in the working-class housing complexes of Lisbon.

Mrio Pinto de Andrade was in fact the first African critic to deconstruct the mythology of Lusotropicalism in the mid-twentieth century.

This is the end of the story according to the commander. With the return and continued political dominance of dr left-wing PAICV since new flag notwithstand-ingCape Verde has adopted a clearly pragmatic stance that projects its economic, political, and cultural interests simultaneously toward Europe EU nations, particularly PortugalAfrica Reinvenrs Africa, South Africa, and Lusophone African peer nationsBrazil, and the United States. Africa and Brazil remained intertwined through the mantle of the coloniality of power initially woven by the Portuguese and other rising European powers.


In that sense, Gil-berto Freyre was correct in searching for identities that were not acceptable at the time, mainly for political reasons, and maybe because at the time there was also an anti-Portuguese prejudice.


A Burmese Odyssey pdf, symp, http: The first one belongs to Flora Gomess brilliant film Udju azul di Yonta The blue eyes of Yonta, dis-cussed in chapter3, which details the transition in Guinea-Bissau from a state-run economy to a market economy and from single-party to a multi-party political system. However, the Lusotropicalist theory gained a body and a name of its own during Freyres voyage to Portugal and several Portuguese 6 African, Portuguese, and Brazilian Interconnectionsoverseas territories as well as Senegal between andamply documented in his travelogue titled Aventura e rotina Adventure and rou-tine, Omar Ribeiro Thomaz supports Netos declaration, pointing out the immense ambiguity underlying the final years of Portuguese colonialism in Africa, where despite the significant changes in the colonial systemfor example, the abolition of the Lei do Indigenato 19 and of the regime of contract labor20there was in fact an intensification of racial segregation for both blacks and mestios, particularly in Mozambique and Angola.

It is the saga of psychoanalyst Osvaldo Campos in the final months of his life, when both his personal and professional existence tragically merge and unravel. Still, many critics consider Mozambique to be a paradigmatic success story of a significantly poor nation without the mineral wealth of countries such as Angola, hav-ing also suffered the cataclysmic effects of a prolonged civil war, from which it has been able to accomplish significant progress for its people dur-ing the postwar years.

It remains primarily a provider of raw materials, particularly mineral wealth, to the more indus-trialized countries in the world, thus replicating the extraction economic model imposed by colonialism, a key insight that echoes that of Thandika Mkandawire In this preface, Cabral echoes several of the points advanced by Mrio Pinto de Andrade, asserting that Lusotropicalism constitutes the theoretical basis for a mythology that served as propaganda to defend the status quo of Portuguese colonialism.

Manning Marable – Malcolm X – Uma Vida de

For instance, poor white Portuguese such as Vandaa real-life character who appears throughout Costas film trilogyspeak fluent Cape Verdean Kriolu on a daily basis. Costas compassionate 18 African, Portuguese, and Brazilian Interconnectionscamera lends its subjects a sense of dignity in the face of lifes severity.

Still, characterizations of Portuguese colonial exceptionalism must be tempered by the fact that Portugal was to a large degree able to forge a relatively centralized and interdependent triangular trade system across African, Portuguese, and Brazilian Interconnections 3 the Atlantic after it lost its short-lived commercial and military hegemony in the Indian Ocean by the end of the sixteenth century.

As Freyre elaborated his Lusotropicalist theorization in subsequent lectures and publications, its epistemological reach would be extended to the African colonies and to the various Asian enclaves that umma part of the Portuguese empire. Carol Klees academic citizenship and warm collegiality are indeed exemplary.

A Novel pdf, vvhd, http: This important historical juncture is the centerpiece of Pepetelas novel A gloriosa famlia [The Glorious Family, ] discussed later in this chapter.

Fernando Arenas-Lusophone Africa_ Beyond Independence -Univ of Minnesota Press ()

In this film Gomes captures the complex transi-tion where collectivist utopian dreams are replaced by the profit motive and reinvemes values, and where the certainty of the goal of independence has given way to the uncertainties of the neoliberal world order in which the fate of many small poorer nations around the world is no longer in their hands. One of the most outstanding nov-els to do so until now is Ldia Jorges O vento assobiando nas gruas The wind blowing against the cranes, It is simultaneously an exception-ally wealthy country and yet one of the poorest in the world.


On the other hand, except for a few hopeful cases such as Uganda and Senegal, the AIDS pandemic continues to devastate the young and economically active seg-ments of the population, especially in southern Africa.

Unconquered um,http: It can be argued that the beginning of the end of these utopias occurred immediately after the institutionalization of the political regimes that set in after indepen-dence. The documentary Outros bairros Other neighborhoods, by Vasco Pimentel, Ins Gonalves, and Kiluanje Liberdade, centers on new identitarian formations emerging among Afro-Portuguese youth who inhabit the poor suburban areas around Lisbon that are on the verge of disappearing in favor of government-sponsored tenement building areas.

However, it also elicited a plethora of unambiguous critical reactions throughout the Portuguese-speaking world and beyond.

Angolan fiction writ-ers such as Manuel Rui in addition to Pepetela vividly document the shift from the collective euphoria surrounding the socialist project as initially posited by the MPLA to its transformation into an oligarchic state largely divorced from the needs and aspirations of the poor majority, reflecting not only class colonialism but also the mechanisms of the coloniality of power at work.

Dynamics related to geopolitical and xxiv Introductionsocioeconomic imbalances, disparities, and inequalities, which are partly rooted in the experience of colonialism are still at work in contemporary global, regional, national, and local processes therefore demanding a sus-tained critical attention to their perverse effects.

Finally, it offers an account of the contemporary geopolitical contours of the five individual Portuguese-speaking African states that are the object of this study, point-ing out their specificities in relationship to each other, to their particular subregions, and to the African continent as a whole.

Celebrating the Harvest Season pdf,http: He argues that Brazil emerged from an eco-nomically and socially bipolar space located in the South Atlantic that was created by Portuguese colonialism, largely based upon slave labor, encom-passing an area of slave reproduction centered in Angola and an area of slave production in various enclaves throughout Portuguese America 9. Among Lusophone African nations, Guinea-Bissau is indeed the most fragile both politically and economically.

In their happy ending, the young pioneers somehow recover the watch by fighting against Zairean sol-diers collaborating with rival movement FNLA in Luanda at the time of Introduction xxviiindependence.